Coronavirus (Covid-19)


Coronavirus or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a virus that attacks the respiratory system. 

This disease caused by a viral infection is called COVID-19. 

Coronavirus can cause mild disturbances to the respiratory system, severe lung infections, to death.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), better known as the Coronavirus, is a new type of coronavirus that is transmitted to humans.

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Although more attacking the elderly, this virus can affect anyone, ranging from infants, children, to adults, including pregnant women and nursing mothers.

Coronavirus infection is called COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) and was first discovered in the city of Wuhan, China at the end of December 2019.

This makes some countries implement policies to impose lockdowns to prevent the spread of Coronavirus.

Coronavirus is a collection of viruses that can infect the respiratory system. In many cases, this virus only causes mild respiratory infections, such as flu.

However, this virus can also cause severe respiratory infections, such as lung infections (pneumonia).

In addition to the SARS-CoV-2 virus or Coronavirus, viruses that are also included in this group are the viruses that cause Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the virus that causes Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).

Although caused by viruses from the same group, namely coronaviruses, COVID-19 has some differences with SARS and MERS, among others in terms of the speed of spread and severity of symptoms.

Read: Corona’s Positive Impact on the environment

Symptoms of Corona Virus (COVID-19)

  • Early symptoms of Coronavirus infection or COVID-19 can resemble flu symptoms, namely fever, runny nose, dry cough, sore throat, and headache.
  • After that, the symptoms can disappear and heal or even aggravate.
  • Patients with severe symptoms can experience high fever, cough with phlegm and even bleeding, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

These symptoms appear when the body reacts against the Coronavirus.

In general, 3 general symptoms can indicate someone is infected with the Coronavirus, namely:

  • Fever (body temperature above 38 degrees Celsius)
  • Cough
  • Hard to breathe
  • The symptoms of COVID-19 generally appear within 2 days to 2 weeks after the patient is exposed to the Coronavirus.

Causes of Corona Virus (COVID-19)

  • Coronavirus infection or COVID-19 is caused by a coronavirus, which is a group of viruses that infect the respiratory system.
  • In most cases, coronaviruses only cause mild to moderate respiratory infections, such as flu.
  • However, this virus can also cause severe respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
  • It is suspected that the Coronavirus was initially transmitted from animals to humans.
  • However, it was later discovered that the Coronavirus was also transmitted from human to human.

A person can get COVID-19 through a variety of ways, namely:

Accidentally inhaling saliva splashes (droplets) that come out when people with COVID-19 cough or sneeze.

Hold the mouth or nose without washing hands first after touching an object affected by saliva splashes of a COVID-19 sufferer.

Close contact with sufferers of COVID-19.

Coronavirus can infect anyone, but the effect will be more dangerous or even fatal if it occurs in elderly people, pregnant women, people who have certain diseases, smokers, or people whose immune systems are weak, for example in cancer patients.

Because it is easily transmitted, the Coronavirus is also at high risk of infecting medical staff treating patients with COVID-19.

Therefore, medical personnel and people who have contact with COVID-19 patients need to use personal protective equipment (PPE).

Corona Virus Diagnosis (COVID-19)

  • To determine whether the patient is infected with the Coronavirus, the doctor will ask about the symptoms experienced by the patient and whether the patient has just traveled or lived in an area that has a case of Coronavirus infection before symptoms appear.
  • The doctor will also ask if the patient has any contact with someone who is suffering or is suspected of having COVID-19.

To confirm the diagnosis of COVID-19, the doctor will carry out the following tests:

  1. Rapid test as a filter
  2. Swab test or PCR test to detect Coronavirus in sputum
  3. CT scan or chest X-ray to detect infiltrates or fluid in the lungs

Corona Virus Treatment (COVID-19)

Coronavirus infection or COVID-19 can’t be treated, but there are some steps that doctors can take to reduce symptoms and prevent the spread of the virus, namely:

  • Referring to patients with severe COVID-19 to undergo treatment and quarantine in a referral hospital.
  • Provide fever and pain relievers that are safe and by the patient’s condition.
  • Encourage sufferers of COVID-19 to do independent isolation and adequate rest.
  • Encourage sufferers of COVID-19 to drink lots of water to maintain body fluid levels

Corona Virus Prevention (COVID-19)

Until now, there is no vaccine to prevent Coronavirus infection or COVID-19.

Therefore, the best prevention method is to avoid the factors that can cause you to be infected with this virus, namely:

Apply physical distancing, which is to maintain a minimum distance of 1 meter from other people. And not to go outside the house unless there is an urgent need.

Use a mask when on the move in public places or crowds, including when you go shopping for groceries.

Routinely wash your hands with water and soap or hand sanitizer containing at least 60% alcohol. Especially after doing activities outside the home or in public places.

Do not touch the eyes, mouth, and nose before washing hands.

Increase endurance with a healthy lifestyle.

Avoid contact with people with COVID-19, people who are suspected of being positively infected by the Coronavirus, or people who have a fever, cough, or runny nose.

Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, then throw the tissue in the trash.

Keep clean objects that are often touched and environmental cleanliness, including cleaning the house.

For people suspected of being affected by COVID-19 or included in the monitored person or patient under surveillance category. Some steps can be taken so that the Coronavirus is not transmitted to others, namely:

  • Do independent isolation by staying apart from others for a while. If it is not possible, use a bedroom and bathroom that is different from what others use.
  • Do not leave the house, except for treatment.
  • If you want to go to the hospital when the symptoms get worse, you should first contact the hospital to pick up.
  • Prohibit and prevent others from visiting or visiting you until you are completely healed.
  • As much as possible do not have meetings with people who are sick.
    Avoid sharing the use of cutlery and drinking equipment, toiletries, and sleeping equipment with others.
  • Wear a mask and gloves when in a public place or with someone else.
  • Tissue to cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, then immediately throw the tissue in the trash.

Conditions that require direct treatment by a doctor in the hospital. Such as childbirth, surgery, dialysis, or vaccinating children, need to be treated differently with some adjustments during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The aim is to prevent transmission of the Coronavirus while you are in the hospital. Consult with your doctor about the best course of action that needs to be done.